Refractory materials are used in the construction and repair of thermal units (mainly – furnaces). These materials are laid under, walls, arches and other elements of the stoves, and also they are used for spreading ladles, laying pipes, etc. Refractory materials are in the form of powders, bricks and ceramic shaped products.
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The main requirements for refractory materials are as follows: thermal and chemical resistance; strength at high heating temperatures; stability of volume with temperature changes.
By chemical properties refractory materials are divided into three main groups: acidic, basic and neutral.
Acid refractory materials can enter into chemical interaction with the main slags and do not interact with acid slags. The main refractory materials, on the contrary, interact with acid slags, and the neutral ones do not interact with either acidic or basic materials.
Refractory materials manufacturers are made of raw materials that are characterized by chemical inertness, the properties of which are not disturbed by the influence of high temperatures. As such raw materials, oxides, oxygen-free compounds, oxycarbides, oxynitrides can act. Depending on the type of raw materials used, heat-insulating refractory products are manufactured using a variety of technological processes.
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Types of refractory ceramic products
Manufacturers of refractory materials produce numerous types, differing in:
● the form;
● heat treatment;
● fire resistance;
According to the form
Forming of heat-resistant materials manufacturers carry out using such methods:
● casting (melt and fluids are used);
● pressing (semi-dry or hot);
● plastic molding;
● cutting of previously manufactured blocks.
Unshaped refractory ceramic products can be produced in the form of pastes, suspensions, powders or pieces that do not have regulated dimensions. Therefore, in their consistency, they can be fluid, dry, semi-dry or plastic. They are strengthened with the help of binders (mineral or organic).
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By heat treatment
Bezobzhigovye refractory products manufacturers dry at a temperature of less than 600 C. When the raw material is heated above 600 C (this is done with the help of plasma or electric furnaces), firing of refractories is carried out.
Producers of heat-resistant materials make them:
● especially dense (such as materials whose porosity does not exceed 3%);
● high-density (3-10%);
● dense (10-16%);
● Sealed (16-20%);
● medium-dense (20-30%);
● low-density (30-45%);
● highly porous (45-75%);
● ultraporous – with a porosity of more than 75%.
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Producers of high-temperature materials divide them by their ability to withstand very high temperatures:
● Products that are able to withstand temperatures of 1580-1770 C are considered refractory;
● highly refractory – from 1770 to 2000 ;
● more than 2000 C – products of higher refractoriness;
● more than 3000 C – super-impervious.
The composition of these types of refractories:
● oxy carbon;
● carbon and others.
Producers of heat-resistant products release them for use in metallurgical processes and for construction work. For the construction of furnaces, refractories having higher values for resistance to temperature and characterized by low porosity are used.
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Gypsum board is in great demand among suppliers of refractory materials. It is made of a double sheet of cardboard and gypsum filler. When building walls, refractory concrete is often used, having a porosity of 45%. It not only withstands the influence of high temperatures, but also is a high-quality heat-insulating refractory product.
To carry out construction work in fire hazardous areas produce a hard-to-fire plywood. In addition, this material is used in shipbuilding and car building. If an open flame is sent to such a plywood, it will spread very slowly, and the formation of smoke will be moderate. As soon as you remove it from the fire, the combustion will immediately stop.
From molded refractories, coke, open-hearth furnaces, blast furnaces, and melting furnaces are being built. They are used in the lining of engines (for aircraft and rockets), nuclear reactors, magnetohydrodynamic generators. Unshaped refractories are designed for lining and repair of furnaces (heating, electric arc, firing, induction, coke) and converters. In addition, they are used as a material for filling joints in the construction of molded refractories.
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Oxygen-free refractories are made of oxygen-free compounds (carbides, borides, sulphides and others). Oxide refractories are produced to create the hulls of instruments that control the temperature regime of the casting process, measure the proportion of oxygen in the steel, and so on. For the lining of the domain and aggregates for melting metals, carbonaceous refractories are also used.
Magnesian-silicate refractories are designed for lining of glass melting furnaces and melting units. In addition, they are added to the powders used in metallurgy. Magnesia-spinel refractories are used in steelmaking furnaces. Magnesian-lime are designed for lining converters.
In the catalog of the Worldbuild365 portal you will find information on manufacturers and suppliers of refractory products and can contact them through a convenient communication system. In the Exhibitions section you will find information about all the major events at which suppliers of refractory products will represent the proposed products. Read more on this page:WWW.refractoriesmaterials.com